Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove): A vital herbal drug used in periodontal disease

Deepanjeet Kaur, Kaushal K. Chandrul


Cloves are widely used in dental care, and are effective against a large number of bacteria.
The main component of clove oil is eugenol, with β-caryophyllene and eugenyl acetate. The
review of published results reveals a great opportunity to treat periodontal disease. The
purpose of this study is to compare the bud, leaf and stem essential oil compositions from S.
aromaticum and then to evaluate the correlation of the results with anatomic and geographical
origins of the essential oil. Many commercial essential oils isolated from bud, leaf and stem
were used in this work. The oils were analyzed by GC and then constituents were identified
from the whole. The major constituent in oils was eugenol, with increasing percentages from
bud (72.08 - 82.36%) to leaf (75.04 - 83.58%) and stem (87.52 - 96.65%). In the clove bud
essential oil eugenyl acetate is the second major component (8.6 - 21.3%) while detected in
considerably lower amount in the leaf (0 - 1.45%) and stem (0.07 - 2.53%). In leaf essential
oil, the second main compounds were β-caryophyllene (11.65 - 19.53%) and α-humulene
(1.38 - 2.17%), less represented in bud essential oils (2.76 - 8.64% and 0.34 - 1.04%
respectively) and in stem essential oils (1.66 - 9.7% and 0.22 - 1.31% respectively). For each
plant material, variation in the percentage of the main constituents was observed according to
the sample geographic origin.


Syzygium aromaticum β-caryophyllene Eugenol Eugenyl acetate Geographic origins

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