Recent and advanced animal models used in the Screening of analgesics and anti-inflammatory activity

Shivram Krishna, Harikesh Maurya

Abstract


Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are consisting of three major anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-analgesics properties. They have reduced the sensation of pain, body temperature, and inflammation. It is also used for the treatment of the long-term health problems like arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lupus). NSAIDs highly protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from the damaging effects of acid promote blood clotting by activating blood platelets, and promote normal function of the kidney. Incompatible with the action of NSAIDs many different types of drugs and plant use for the treatment of the analgesic, inflammation and pyretic activity. Diclofenac inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme with the greater potency that it (COX-1). NSAIDs are generally used in the management of pain because of the integrated role of the COX pathway that is recognition of pyretic, inflammation and analgesic. Introduction to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sympathy towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. During adolescence, hind paw mechanical removal thresholds were evaluated using an electronic von Frey Anesthesiometer. Animals challenged neonatally with LPS (nLPS) had increased pain sensitivity on this measure which was related with decreased Oprm1 expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both male and female rats. There was no effect of inflammatory treatment on either anxiety or depressive-like behavior suggesting that affective functioning did not account for differences in mechanical pain sensitivity.

Keywords


Anesthesiometer, Inflammation, Arthritis, Analgesics, Osteoarthiritis.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30750/ijpbr.6.1.9

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